Christian outreach in the 20th cent. Started with the vision of Grattan Guinness and Karl Kumm. It was their ambition to reach the unreached peoples of the whole Sudan Belt. Therefore they founded the Sudan Pioneer Mission in Aswan in 1900 and employed among others a Nubian convert. His name was Samuel Ali Hiseen, and he ministered with the SPM until his early death in 1927 as evangelist, teacher and linguist. German and Swiss missionaries became involved in outreach, medical and linguistic work among Nubians in Old Nubia.